English presence in the Brazilian Empire: Edward Johnston & Co. and the exports trade, 1842–1852Artigo
Carlos Gabriel Guimarães - Universidade Federal Fluminense
This study aimed at analyzing the organization and the exporting activity of the British trade firm, Edward Johnston & Co. in Brazil, from 1842 to 1852. When arriving in Rio de Janeiro, in 1821, Edward Johnston worked at the British trade firm, F. Le Breton & Co. In 1827, as the manager of the trade firm, he married Henrietta, daughter of Charles Alexander Moke, owner of the Massau farm, coffee producer in the Tijuca forest, Rio de Janeiro. After returning from London and Holland, Edward Johnston quit the trade firm and became a broker. The growth in Brazilian exports, the knowledge about Rio de Janeiro, and the commercial contacts with England allowed Edward Johnston to organize the trade firm Edward Johnston & Co. in 1842. His partners were the traders William Joseph Havers and João Ignácio Tavares. Edward Johnston left the trade firm with his partners and returned to Liverpool. With João Ignácio Tavares leaving the trade firm and the death of Havers, in 1847, besides the commercial crisis in Liverpool in the same year, Johnston reorganized the society in Brazil. The improvement in business and the increasing expertise of the trade firm in coffee export allowed Johnston’s children to be more present. This participation led to the creation of Edward Johnston, Son & Co. in 1854. But that is another story.
Spices in Portuguese Amazon region: vegetable retail and Atlantic trade in the end of the Spanish Monarchy
Alírio Cardoso – Universidade Federal do Maranhão
In the first half of the 17th century, several proposals to recover the Portuguese economy were presented, especially after the end of the Iberian Union (1640). Around the same time, residents of the States of Maranhão and Pará proposed a solution: to explore local products similar to ancient Asian spices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the emergence of spices in the Portuguese Amazon, and the role of this region in the political and economic contexts of the end of the monarchy.
The East India Company and the Portuguese loss of the Northern Province
Pedro Nobre - Centro de História de d’Áquem e d’Álem-Mar
The Anglo-Portuguese relationship in Asia was marked by cooperation and antagonism, in a connection that can be entitled as pragmatic, flexible and adaptable to the circumstances. This complex and multifaced interaction had in the Portuguese-Maratha wars of the 1730s a paradigmatic example of how it was managed the frontier proximity between Bombay and the Estado da India. In this article, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the Anglo-Portuguese interaction in the particular context of the Maratha attacks to the Província do Norte and to frame them in the long relationship process initiated with the cession of Bombay.
The making of political and cultural hegemony in the context of transition: narratives on democracy and socialism in Encontros com a Civilização Brasileira, Cuadernos de Marcha (second period), and Controversia (1979–1985)
Cristiano Pinheiro de Paula Couto – Universidade de São Paulo
In Latin America of the 1960s, the “historical necessity” of a revolutionary rupture was imposed in such a way that, at times, even conservative parties found themselves compelled to propose a “revolution in liberty”. The assaults of the counterrevolution would provoke inversions: if, in the 1960s, the “revolution” was the hegemonic discourse, in the 1980s, the dominant motto was “democracy”. Being an ineluctable topic of debates in Latin-American intellectual circles and party organizations during the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, the “issue of democracy” belongs to the semantic field of an essential category for the study of political and cultural journals published in Latin America during that period, that is to say, democracy per se. In this context of transition, a significant fraction of the battle of ideas, in Latin America and other regions of the West, was centered on the notion of democracy, broadly claimed by almost all the ideological trends. Taking into account this context of transition, I propose to analyze, within the corpus of texts published in three political and cultural Latin American journals, the frictions and nexus between two major narratives of modernity: democracy and socialism.
The application of the Brazilian Commercial Code between 1850 and 1860: an analysis of the evidence of a case of negligent bankruptcy
Hanna Sonkajärvi - Universidad del País Vasco
This article offers, based on the example of a bankruptcy case (1853–1860) of a tradesman in Porto Alegre, Francisco Ferreira de Almeida, an analysis of the Brazilian Commercial Code’s application in the first decade of its introduction. The purpose of this analysis is to indicate the variety of possibilities that legal agents had at their disposal in the judicial process and the restrictions created on these by legal proceedings. From the case of Ferreira de Almeida, we conclude that the legal system in the years 1850–1860 was characterized by a great complexity of courts, working sometimes in parallel and interacting or communicating in an indirect way. Even the procedure of the Court of Appeal (Tribunal da Relação) was heavily conditioned by local agents and by the actions taken early in the bankruptcy proceedings (conciliation and arbitration). Also, the public and private roles of the agents involved in the judicial process blended up and influenced the process, which still contained elements of the Philippine Ordinances. Consequently, to understand what the legal culture of the Empire was or how courts worked, it is necessary to study the judicial institutions from the point of view of the administrative and communicative practices of the social agents that composed them.
Between the elite and the people: the sport in the 19th century Rio de Janeiro (1851-1857)
Victor Andrade de Melo – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
This article aims to discuss the sporting experiences underway in Rio de Janeiro between the years 1851 and 1857. As a starting point of the time frame, it was considered the moment when the first associations of horse racing and rowing were founded the city. The ending point refers to the creation of Petropolitano Jockey Club, the last initiative before there was a period of stagnation in the promotion of sporting events. We tried to address the peculiarities of the involvement of various social groups in the phenomenon. As the practice was closely associated with notions of civilization and progress, we infer that this research can help us better understand the relationship of these different strata with the initiatives of adherence to the ideas and images of modernity in the capital of the country, which could be observed at that period. To fulfill the objective, we used as sources the publications edited in the city, taking into account that the press began to take on the role of public arena and an opinion leader. At the end, we concluded that, in this period, one of the key dilemmas of the shaping of the sports field can be observed, as it had occurred with other entertainment practices: the need to create strategies to attract and involve a larger public, without abandoning the distinction mechanisms.